Four main components are the Turbocharger

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This article is going to inform you of how a turbo charger works and the components needed for a turbocharger system.´s what happens now, we know in our engine cycle that at the end we´re going to force out exhaust gases. These exhaust gases are fed out through some piping into this turbine called a turbocharger which what happens here is that these exhaust gases spin the turbine, and this turbine is connected by a shaft (we can represent that right here) connected to another turbine which is sucking in outside air as it spins this outside air is forced in and it´s going to be pressurized now so it´s not just atmospheric pressure that you´re putting into the engine, you´re forcing in more air.

So we call that boost this air is forced in, now what happens when you´re forcing in a greater amount of air is when you add pressure, you also add heat and you don´t want to add already hot air into the engine, so you´re gonna pass this air through an intercooler. Now, this is just a bunch of coils, some of them use a liquid system, but most of them are air-based and it´ll pass through some coil sand that will cool down the air. This cool air, then travels through the intake manifold and that will come into your engine chamber. Now, there are some things that people have added in to make this more feasible.

We´ve got two things here now, the Blow-Off Valve, and we´ve got a waste gate now, when you have exhaust gases coming through, and you don´t want to reach, say 8psi. So you set a limit on your waste gate at 8psi, and what happens when this turbine spinning here realizes that the air sucking in is going to be forced in at 8 psi .It´ll open up this waste gate will allow this air that´s going into the exhaust turbine to feed out through the exhaust instead of creating more boost. So that helps on this side now, on the other hand every time you let go of the ignition, you´re going to have boost inside of this intake manifold that you can´t use.

How a turbocharger is plumbed in a car /So what happens is you´ll shut off the throttle, this intake valve will close, and you´ve got all this pressurized air that´s wanting to go into this cylinder so because it´s got no where to go, you get a Blow-Off valve which will let that air escape. Now how this works is once you get to the PSI that you set at, say you´ll have a spring that at 6psi, it´ll let air out. So you´re revving up high in your car, you let go of the gas, and this throttle plate closes, and then all this air is being forced into here and it reaches 6 psi. Well this spring lifts up and it lets the air out and you´ll hear a hissing sound, that´s what that is when you let off the throttle plate is this Blow-Off valve letting out air.

So, those are the main four components. You´ve got the turbocharger which consists of the two turbines, used to force in air, you´ve got the intercooler which cools the air going into the engine. You´ve got waste gate that lets exhaust gases escape if you´ve reached a high enough boost already, and you´ve got the blow-off valve for when you let go of the gas the air has somewhere to go, and those are the four main components of a turbocharger


I have seen this video several times and I think it is a good video; however, can you make a new one, with the new setup you have now, and include information on bypass valves as well? I really like how your newer videos are are all kind of linked together by you referring your viewers to other videos, which in this case would be intercoolers, for example. Just a suggestion! I have long tube headers on my car, if I got a turbo would they have to be removed? Or does the piping work with them? Im new when it comes to turbos and a reply would be amazing! I don´t get it. If your throttle plate closes when you let off the accelerator, how does it continue to idle? If you leave a little gap, won´t that just let the compressed air in? Mightycarmods talks about this Bob where you can choose to vent atmosphere or recirculate. Where does it go when you recirculate?

Great work man! Your explanations are really easy to understand and you actually respond to peoples comments! More youtubers need to be like you. Great vid, You have earned my subscription. I also read that fmic is better for offroad because of how a fmic can be clogged with mud easily. And also if you are moving slowly (rock crawling) it is better because of how heat rises. This means that it will take less energy to turn this turbine, Now if you think of a very large turbo say a 65mm it will take more energy (exhaust being produced) to get that turbo spinning at the same speed as the smaller turbos, this is usually why rally, f1, and touring cars have a small to medium sized turbo; it will give you the power you need at a low rpm to get out of low speed situations such as corners.

This is not how a BOV works. There is no spring that opens at 6psi. The Bov opens when it is pulled by engine vacuum. While there are both pull types and push types of blow off valves, they still are open based on the force of the vacuum of the engine when you step off the throttle. No, I would recommend reading up on forums and seeing if others have done it, or simply reading up on basic turbo installs. There are quite a few write ups out there - just need to do a little digging. Best of luck!

Bypass valve is after the MAF sensor

I don´t know how overbuilt those engines are. But if the fund were available you could always build up the bottom end and increase the reliability for a turbo set up. If the funds were available and I were to put a turbocharger in my non turbo sports car Genesis Coupe, it would most likely cause a lot of engine troubles in the future since my car isn´t built to withstand the extra strain, right? Great video! Quick question: my car is turbocharged, but has a diverter valve. How do those work? Is extra air just recirculated into the intake system? Is anything ejected into the atmosphere? I just want ask if it´s normal for the intercooler to have oil in the piping? I did some research and some say it´s perfectly nomal since the oil in it comes from the EGR? Some even recomend ´blanking´ and ´sticking´ the EGR. What´s your take on this? Any reply will be greatly appreciated. Actually your logic makes sense.

If your bypass valve is after the MAF sensor, then your engine would have an incorrect reading of just how much air is coming in if it simply expelled the air into the atmosphere with the bypass valve.

Can you explain in short why some cars use a diverter valve instead of a BOV? My car uses a DV, and my understanding is that if too much of that compressed air is released it will mess up the A/F ratio. Not sure if that is 100% correct or not. So I know 4 cylinders can only use one turbo (from what I have seen). But I was thinking, you have two turbo´s for a 4 cylinder engine. Could you use the exhaust from turbo #1 and make it spool turbo #2, the have two intakes going into one intercooler then to the engine? So engine exhaust spools turbo #1, exhaust out of turbo #1 spools turbo number #2, then exhaust out the back, while each turbo has there own filter, then the pipes join somewhere in between the turbo and intercooler? What´s the effect of raising the stock PSI a turbo produces? And would you agree that the best fuel efficiency is at the min rpm range where the turbo is working, while not using the gas pedal too much?

For example, I feel that my car accelerates and holds the uphill speed better from 2000 rpm upwards. When I accelerate harder in 2nd gear I feel the turbo kicking in at 2100-2200 RPM. No engines that use a sensor to determine pressure from the manifold (absolute manifold pressure) instead of the mass airflow sensor (MAF) don´t need a blow off valve. It would cause cylinder wash and destroy the engine. Pepboys offers a sick turbo whistle if you really wanna sound like you have something you don´t need.

Basic Turbocompresor installsNo engines that use a sensor to determine pressure from the manifold (absolute manifold pressure) instead of the mass airflow sensor (MAF) don´t need a blow off valve. it would cause cylinder wash and destroy the engine. Props for you for going to school, but just review and cut out the bad parts, like calling it an engine chamber lol, its a combustion chamber and I think that part about the waste gate was a bit off, because the exhaust is always flowing through already, but again good vid just teach the right things for the people who need to learn. The reason for a BOV is to deal with pressure surge caused by the air that can´t reach the engine. The danger is in the backsurge hitting the impeller and damaging the turbo -- the engine itself will be fine. Also, I think the reason you don´t hear the blow-off is because most cars don´t actually vent the pressure to atmosphere. Bypass valves seem to be much more common, and they´re much quieter. Yes all turbo´s have it. You would blow your engine if it wasn´t there.

The standard BOV´s on a normal car are designed to make as little noise as possible because most of the people don´t like there car to make noise every time they take there foot of the gas ;) So the compression ratio doesn´t change because the size of the cylinder and the range of the piston is fixed and the initial pressure of the air being compressed by the piston is irrelevant? By the way I found your channel very recently and it is pretty much what I´ve been searching for without knowing it. I´m also a big F1 fan and those videos are great!

Technically BOV idea he talking about is wrong. BOV work by vacuum, there is a hose connected into the intake manifold (between engine and throttle ), going to the BOV (between throttle and cooler or turbo) so if the throttle shut engine will still take air to remain running. So it will create vacuum and it´s will pull the diaphragm inside the BOV and release any extra boost ... BOV will remain if there is any boost in the intake because the BOV will be pressurized instead vacuum. I just want to explain the right idea I love the sound of BOV´s, but I haven´t had much success making one more efficient than a BYPASS valve on my WRX. BPV´s will recirculate the exhaust back into the turbine and make your car run better (at least a Subaru).

You could go with the 50bpv 50 bov route if you MUST have that "mean" sound. Why not separate the turbo between the exhaust fan running it, and the fan pressurizing the air going into the engine? If you did that you would probably wouldn´t need inner cooler? If you didn´t need the inner cooler, in theory (in my head) you would create more P.S.I., or pressurized air, as well as it being cooler (than even with inner-coolers?)? It would be neat if they setup a air-conditioning units that pumps real cold air into the engine...? It´s rather simple, the cooler the engine, the more efficient and happy it is.... It is more than the pressure. it gets hot because the turbo is getting hot because of the exhaust and then the air is heated up when it passes through you should fact check a little bit more. Sorry to do this, you have done a great job teaching people the turbo, but you missed a name a said it incorrectly. The exhaust side is called the turbine. The fresh air side is called the compressor , since it compressor the air to get to inter cooler then engine. Nice thoroughly explained video!

What happens if you have different pressures at your wastegate and BOV? like for example you have BOV to let out at 7psi, and your wastegate is set to go off at say 9psi? does that mean your overall boost will be at. In addition to my previous question, if you didn´t have a blow-off valve and saved the boost by keeping the pressurized air in the system, could that help solve the problem of turbo lag? My thinking is that turbo lag is caused because it requires the exhaust to spool up the turbocharger and produce boost and if the exhaust isn´t immediately there from the lack of throttle. If there is already excess boost in the system, wouldn´t there be no turbo lag because the boost is constantly in the system?

So basically what a turbo does is pushes more air in the combustion chamber because more oxygen will create more power. But if we increase the amount of air going in the piston, we have to increase the amount of fuel as well to maintain the air fuel ratio. But then why does that increase the mileage of the engine? A turbo charged vehicle uses more fuel per cycle than a naturally aspirated engine, but usually turbo charged cars have better mileage. If we take 2 cars, one with turbo and one without turbo and set the same air fuel ratio.

Air fuel ratio

Obviously the power will be more in turbo charged car. But which car will give better mileage? Can any one tell me how a turbocharger is selected? I have an car and I need to install the turbocharger to it, so what points iIneed to take care/ should consider before installing so as the turbocharger works well to the car I have a question n you said that you don´t wanna reach 8 PSI? And I didn´t understand when the wastegate is opened? And this turbocharger system seems like the thrbo system works on the exhaust gas. can you guide me how to connect my turbo lines I know how oil line has to connect but my JDM A/R24 M70 has two other holes that I don´t know what they´re for I believe is coolant but not sure and a vacuum coupling in compressor side don´t know where to connect it to and dont know how to connect my boost gauge hope u can thanks Little questions here:

If the throttle closes all the way when you let off the gas, what keeps the engine running? With the air remaining in the intake manifold? And don´t you need some kind of air filter attached to the turbo? And what happens to the OEM air filter connected to the throttle body, you just remove it? Can you explain the air part of turbos, I was doing some reading on turbos by garret but wasn´t too sure of any pros or cons to them.

I think it´s something about the size ratio of the impeller fan vs the expeller fan? May I know the Connections difference between turbocharged and without Turbo. If Turbo charge is not present, how frequently air is drawn and how the exhaust gases are driven away? The similar diagram without turbo charge. Is it possible that installing an aftermarket catback exhaust can cause problems with the turbo because of the difference in back pressure? I installed a borla Touring in my f150 and the dealer said that my turbo is making a rattling noise and they’re blaming my aftermarket exhaust What is this "exhaust gas" that you´re talking about that´s traveling through the turbine? And where´s the intake air going through? Is it going through the intercooler? Or is it after? Generally good.

I suggest u mention why tc is need. The point needs to be made that when the piston starts its compression stroke, the air in the cylinder is is at a partial vacuum and u want as much air/fuel in the chamber to maximize the power of each stroke. I recently studied about rich and lean mixture but am confused that how turbo increases power as it is increasing air flow which in turn leads to leaner mixture and in case of lean mixture, power is reduced. Is there a point where a cylinder could have too much air and fuel mixture. I hear drag cars being pushed to 100psi. But is there a point where there is so much air and fuel, it is forced to burn in the exhaust. Forcing you to go to larger piston? I do have a question regarding the blow-off valve though. Why can the pressurized air not stay in the system until the throttle is re-applied? Is it not wasting energy by releasing that boost instead of saving it until it´s needed? Do you have a video on blowoff valves vs recirculating (bypass) valves? I couldn´t find it in your channel.

I completely understand a blowoff valve and how an engine with a MAF sensor will run very rich between shifts. But what about the bypass valve? Why would you run a line from the BPV back to the intake pipe after the sensor but before the compressor vs running a line into the intake manifold to prevent the engine from running too rich between shifts. I´m reading all over on different car forums that BPVs recirculate the air to between the MAF sensor and compressor. It´s not making sense to me. If it helps, I´m interested in turbocharging an FR-S. And I guess the question is would I run a BPV to recirculate to the intake pipe or the intake manifold. Should make a video on this too if you haven´t already. Could you make video about thing called ´Block guard´. Do I really need that? I´m about to turbo charge my car, my goal is 12psi of boost and no beyond that. Some people told me to get that but I don´t really sure should I get it or not. Mr engineering explained I have a serious question about turbo charging a sohc 1.9l engine and if I will be able to get enough horse power gain for the cash or should I just throw in some good head studs and gasket and throw a hundred shot into it basically I´m looking for another 110-175 more hp.

Yes, you can, but then the turbo has to be sized properly. A wastegate allows for you to use a much smaller turbine wheel, so you´ll have better acceleration and higher torque at low rpm. With a larger turbine, you´ll experience dramatic turbo lag. Now if you were to put a small turbine wheel with no wastegate, you would experience too high of pressures at high rpm, and yes, and engine not capable of withstanding these higher temps and pressures is toast. 2) The BOV is only necessary when letting off the throttle (shifting gears). However, you want there to be built pressure in the air chamber waiting to come in once you´re back in gear and on the throttle. The exhaust should constantly spool to maintain power. It takes a bit of time for the turbo to spool and create boost (turbo lag) and so if you keep it spinning for the short duration of the gear shift, you can keep your boost into the next gear. 1) As air is pressurized, it builds heat. Heat is what you´re using to create power, so air that´s already hot is less useful in an engine. Also, cool air is more dense, and has more oxygen. The more oxygen, the more fuel you can burn -> more power. My advice is find a local junkyard and go take an engine apart. That´s one thing that helped me a lot.

There´s a place near me called LKQ, you pay $2 to get in, and it´s full of cars ready to be stripped. I have gone from zero knowledge of engines/vehicles to a working understanding of the innards of an engine, just from your videos. Thank you! (now to just find a way to have a hands-on application) I´m glad I could help! I´ll certainly give it a shot and try to help you understand clutches better! So nice to see young people interested in these topics. Finally, waste gate gases can either be channeled directly into the exhaust (much quieter and more eco-friendly method) or you can have an external wastegate and dump the exhaust gases directly into the atmosphere.

This can be loud, and since it doesn´t pass through your catalytic converter it´s not the most environmentally sound method. Youtube "external wastegate." It makes a very distinct sound, generally at higher rpm when more boost is created. For your second comment: The injection system is directly before the cylinders; the easiest way to locate them is looking at your intake manifold, they´ll be directly above in most cases. The BOV is before the throttle plate. This is how it has to be in order to function. When the throttle plate closes (you let off the gas) pressure inside the air intake increases, and needs to escape (rather than pass back through the turbo). Many turbos have built in wastegates. Don´t think of it as before or after the turbo, but alongside. External wastegates have a split in the exhaust headers that lead to them to release pressure in greater power applications. Intercoolers are not required, but are dumb not to have since they increase the efficiency and output of the device.

External wastegates

  • Where is the carburetor or injection system?
  • Where is the blow off valve in relationship to the carb or throttle plate?
  • Where does the waste gate blow into?
  • Isn´t the waste gate between the cylinder head and the turbo?

Upstream of course. You make it sound like only the waste gate gasses go through the exhaust system. It makes no sense that it would be after the turbo. Also, many turbo sytems don´t have intercoolers. Dont really know what that last part of the second question was but the BOV is so the air can escape when it passes through to the other side of the intercooler. otherwise it would just escape back through the fan of the turbo and that is completely fine as long as your not running too much boost. I mostly understood turbos from other videos and stuff but there were still some things that I didn´t understand and you completely summed it all up for me. The air becomes hot after compression. PV=mRT so as the pressure increases from compression the temperature goes up as well. You do not want hot air coming in, as it is less dense and holds less oxygen. Intercoolers are still used on diesel engines.

That said, not all vehicles with turbos use intercoolers, it´s just a more efficient manner of achieving the desired result. Question: I just watched your gas vs. diesel video and you say that diesel runs on hot air and then as the air gets compressed that when fuel is injected to ignite it. so now based on this video my question is, if you have a turbo diesel engine does that mean you do not have an intercooler since you need the hot air to be injected with diesel? You´re doing a good job with these videos.

Do you have a degree in mechanical engineering? I´m currently in the process of obtaining my certification to be a automotive technician and after that I´m looking forward to going back to an institute to get a bachelors in mechanical engineering. It´s just combining 2 of my favorite things that makes me wanna do it. Unlike a supercharger which is instant power because it´s connected to the engine, a turbocharger gets its power from the exhaust which isn´t instant. When you accelerate there´s a few seconds of no boost (turbolag) because the turbo needs to spool up (have enought exhaust past through to reach a certain psi) then it´ll kick in. Theres probably a better way to explain but I hope that helped you :-) So why don´t you put that you´re an excellent gamer on your resume? Lots of companies are looking for that now.

Why the hostility? Plenty of people don´t understand these topics, or are interested (hence 1600 subscribers) in my videos. If you don´t like them, don´t need them, or are somehow offended by them due to a lack of maturity or overwhelming narcissism, then waste your time elsewhere by playing video games and don´t bother watching my videos. How unthoughtful of me. As has been pointed out, I misspoke about the ignition deal. Obviously I meant throttle, as I say later on in the video. Instead of playing COD3 I do something useful with my time and make educational videos, and you want to bash me for that? Get a life. I believe that is one of the reasons for EGR, but it´s more difficult to heat hot air than cool air, and the greater the temperature difference before and after combustion, the more power the engine can create.

Cooler air is more dense, meaning more oxygen. Also, cooler air can expand more than warmer air (takes up less space for the same amount of oxygen), and the more that air expands the greater the pressure difference from combustion, and the greater amount of power an engine can produce. it makes me sad that people will come on youtube and bash people who are helping others for no good reason. we all mis-speak from time to time, a simple correct of ´hey i think you meant throttle instead of ignition´ is all that would be required. here this kid is making very good videos on lots of automotive principles and designs only to come to his channel and see people saying he is useless? what a joke. keep up the good work man, the US needs more people who understand this stuff. Explained the egr´s purpose in life is to reduce NOx (oxides of nitrogen)which is harmful for the environment and our health. The Egr does this by rerouting exhaust gases into the combustion chamber which lowers combustion temperatures, which in turn reduce NOx.

The exhaust gases lower the temperature because exhaust gas is an inert gas and is non reactive and and it takes up the space of the oxygen in the cylinder. I don´t know much about cars and just needed a really basic explanation, the other videos were far too technical in explaning, yours was easy to understand and simple. That´s awesome. I plan to eventually. Actually I was just inside a dam in Washington state today and the turbines inside use the same technology for varying the flow of water onto the blades. Very cool.